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William Raban
In Time Stepping (1974), Raban takes the relation between time, the actual time of filming and its representation back onto the screen as a starting point for what Le Grice describes as a 'rhythmic space-time game played by two cameras'.

The cameras rapidly shoot and pan from a doorway to both ends of the street and the two sets of footage are edited together, with overlaps superimposed. Again, there is a 'cubist' effect as the image seems to try and tear itself from the screen.

Two other films also play with time in this way. In Colours of This Time (1972), Raban undertakes a formal experiment, exploring the colour temperature of daylight as it changes in the context of a static park scene over the course of a day. The film has a sharp, inventive use of time-lapse and takes the time to play with formal 'structures' while still retaining a strong aesthetic quality (Raban's work is strong on the beauty of composition, even when unintentionally!). Autumn Scenes (1978) consists of three parts each showing a different approach to the use of screen space by (in the first two sections) using a moving camera and juddering jump cut editing that creates an expressionistic effect. In Concrete Fall this draws attention to the relations between dead concrete materials and organic movement. Fergus Walking again mirrors After Duchamp in its cubist representation of a moving figure. The films also reveal Raban's fondness for editing in camera and why he likes to edit slowly with film and manual cutting "The speed relating to the natural rhythms of my own thought process".

Amongst the different qualities in Rabans film there is a direct literary aspect that has tended to be neglected in much of the critical writing. For example, the composition of Thames Film (1986) is notable in that the mixture of old footage, photographs, maps, drawings and sketches are juxtaposed with film of the river shot from a mostly low point of view - on a small boat - that ebbs and flows with the river tides. The soundtrack includes spoken testimony, a record of the same journey made in 1787 and snatches of readings from Eliot. This, together with the conflation of rich textual material, gives the impression of a diary, a record that contains and contrasts past and present whilst generating new meanings from the tension between the two. Raban continued aspects of this approach in From 60 Degrees North (1991), commissioned by Channel Four. One of the many strengths of both this and Thames Film is the hint at experiments with the documentary form that followed whilst having roots in the earlier, more direct 'landscape' pieces like Thames Barrier.

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