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Photography in Film and Video
Stephen Gordon
Photography in Film and Video
However, it would be misleading to believe that the use of still images in film is only possible through the production of experimental or avant-garde film.

A recent example is Christopher Nolan's film Memento (2000) where the style links memory with the still images in a never passing of time. Or Paul Berczeller's TV documentary, This is a True Story (2003), where still images enable the merging of fact and fiction to form a quirky yet tragic story of love and loss.

There are many different techniques of 'filming' photography from simple animation methods to the use of innovative digital technologies. For example, Chris Marker uses a traditional animation rostrum stand for his film Si j'avais quatre dromadaires (1966).

Another technique is 'tape-slide', a time/lens-based medium combining projected photographic images, graphics and text with speech, music and sounds. Cordelia Swann in Kiev Code (1980), Rosmarie (1983) and Der Engel (1981), Nina Danino's original tape-slide series First Memory (1980) are two of the many visual artists who have used this technique. In the light of more recent developments in video, digital imaging and multimedia it is tempting to dismiss tape-slide as out-dated and old-fashioned. However, for video artists, cine-photographers and critical media practitioners, tape-slide offers a powerful means of exploiting the tensions that arise from placing the still photographic image within a time-based context.

However, new digital technology is enabling us to use new techniques to combine still with moving images. In my videos Fractal Dread (2003) and Coded Skin (2004), for example, I have used digital imaging/editing software such as Photoshop, Adobe Premiere, After Effects and Final Cut Pro to import and edit digital still images. Here, movement can be produced by 'rostruming' - digitally sliding into and across the frame. Tim Macmillan's digital animation film Ferment (1999) uses his own unique time-slice camera techniques - the processes of creating multiple viewpoints of a space that are then collaged together. Here the effect is to move the viewer through space, whilst time is frozen.

Still from First Memory by Nina Danino, 1981
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